9月29日レッスン(I3-161) 


It’s been almost 2 months plus and I have been procrastinating on doing the blogging of my I3 lessons. Gomen nasai :/

OK, let’s proceed…

  • Learning the commands and prohibitions verb form with simple usage
  • Using “~ to iu imi desu” with both forms
  • Using “~ te kure”


New grammar forms: Commands (命令形) and Prohibitions (禁止形)

Ughh.. :/ first day back and we have to learn new forms. And 2 at the same time 😦 …anyway, the 2 are related so it made sense to learn them at the same time. But I am going to use separate section for each of them as this blog editor do not really let me specify tables.

Commands (命令形)

Group II

For G2 verbs, we replace the “ます” form with “ろ” like so:

  • 食べます (たべます) -> 食べろ
  • 見ます (みます) -> 見ろ
  • います ー> いろ

Group III
The change for kimasu is a slightly different so I have to specially remembered it 😛

  • きます -> こい
  • します -> しろ

Group I

As for G1, we apply the e-line. For example,

  • 会います (あいます) -> 会え
  • 待ちます (まちます) -> 待て
  • 入ります (はいります) -> 入れ
  • 聞きます (ききます) -> 聞け
  • いそぎます -> いそげ
  • 死にます (しにます) -> 死ね
  • 飲みます (のみます) -> のめ
  • あそびます -> あそべ
  • 話します (はなします) -> 話せ

Prohibitions (禁止形)

Group II

We use the dictionary form of the verb and add a “な”. Therefore,

  • 食べます -> 食べるな
  • 見ます -> 見るな
  • います -> いるな

Group III

As for G3, we use the same method (dictionary form + “な”). Hence,

  • きます -> くるな
  • します -> するな

Group I

Similarly with G2 and G3, we apply the dictionary form + “な” to G1 verbs.
E.g.

  • 会います -> 会うな
  • 待ちます -> 待つな
  • 入ります -> 入るな
  • 聞きます -> 聞くな
  • いそぎます -> いそぐな
  • 死にます -> しぬな
  • 飲みます -> のむな
  • あそびます -> あそぶな
  • 話します -> 話すな

How to use

We use these forms when we want to use the verbs as commands, orders, instructions (or prohibitions). Applicable for an elder person to a younger person (like boss to an employee in the company), between family (father to sons or daughters). Females use another kind, which we haven’t learn yet.

命令形 (めいれいけい) as the kanji has suggested is used when we want to order someone to do things in a blunt way. For example, let’s picture this situation: you are in the midst of being robbed. The robber wouldn’t “politely” ask you to hand him the money, would he?

禁止刑 (きんしけい) is used when we want to prohibit someone from doing something. Like say, you can’t park your car here, you can’t turn right, etc.

So they are like opposites of each other: one is to do something, the other is to not do something.

Examples:

お金 を 出せ。
Give me your money!
Note: that’s what the robber would say 😛
* お金 (おかね)、 出せ (だせ)
* 出せ from だします

手 を 上げろ。
Raise your hand!
* 手 (て)、 上げろ (あげろ)
* 上げろ from 上げます。 Also notice that 上げます is the transitive verb while 上がります is the intransitive verb of “raise”.

早く 寝ろ。
Sleep early!
* 早く (はやく)
* 寝ろ from 寝ます

ちょっと 待て。
Wait a bit.
* 待て from まちます

海 を 泳ぐな。
Don’t swim in the sea.
* 海 (うみ)、 泳ぐな (およぐな)
* 泳ぐな from およぎます (prohibition form)

木 を 登るな。
Don’t climb the tree.
* 木 (き)、 登るな (のぼるな)
* 登るな from 登ります

Note that we have learnt the polite form of giving commands/prohibitions previously.

E.g.,

ちょっと 待て -> (polite) ちょっと 待って ください。

木 を 登るな -> (polite) 木 を 登らないで ください

Using “~ to iu imi desu” with both forms

We used this form to explain to someone what’s something means.

E.g.

[Do not enter sign]

A-さん: あれ は どう いう 意味 です か。
Mr.A: What’s the meaning of that sign over there?
B-さん: 「あそこ に 入るな」 と いう 意味 です。
Mr.B: It says [Do not enter there].
* 意味 (いみ)

Note the meaning also applies to the kanji sign [立入禁止] (たちいりきんし)

Format:

[命令形/禁止形] + [と いう 意味 です]

Examples:

[使用禁止] (しようきんし)
この 漢字 は 使うな と いう 意味 です。
These Kanji words mean [Do not use].
* 漢字 (かんじ)、 使うな (つかうな)

[撮影禁止] (さつえいきんし)
この 漢字 は 写真 を 撮るな と いう 意味 です。
These Kanji words mean [Not allowed to take pictures].
* 写真 (しゃしん)、 撮るな (とるな)

[整理整頓] (せいりせいとん)
この 漢字 は きれい に 片づけろ と いう 意味 です。
These Kanji words mean [Keep things tidy and in order].
* 片づけろ (かたづけろ)

Using “~ te kure”

“~ te kure” is used to make blunt informal commands (we are still on the subject of commands/prohibitions).

This form is usually used by men, to their peers or persons in lower-hierarchy than them.

E.g.

たばこ は 中 で 吸わないで くれ。
Don’t smoke inside.
* 中 (なか)、 吸わないで (すわないで)

Format:

[て-形] + [くれ]

Examples:

この 荷物 は 邪魔だ から、 あっち へ もって いって くれ。
Since this baggage is in the way, bring it over there.
* 荷物 (にもつ)、 邪魔だ (じゃまだ)

この 箱 は 要りません から、 棚 に 載せて くれ。
Place this box on the shelf since it is not used.
* 箱 (はこ)、 要りません (いりません)、 棚 (たな)、 載せて (のせて)

New verbs

  • 守ります (まもります) – keep/observer
  • 走ります (はしります) – run/drive along a road
  • 運びます (はこびます) – carry/transport
  • 上げます (あげます) - raise (Transitive)
  • 下げます (さげます) – lower (Transitive)
  • 確かめます (たしかめます) – check/confirm
  • 注意します (ちゅういします) – be careful about ~~
  • 知らせます (しらせます) – inform
  • 電話します (でんわします) – make a phone call
  • 着替えます (きがえます) – change clothes
  • 登ります (のぼります) – climb/go up
  • 投げます (なげます) – throw

New adjective

  • 邪魔「な」 (じゃま「な」)  – annoying/disturbing/in the way
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2 thoughts on “9月29日レッスン(I3-161) 

  1. この 荷物 は 邪魔だ から、 あっち へ もって いって くれ。
    Since this baggage is in the way, bring it over there.

    I think the 邪魔だ in the above sentence means “annoying/disturbing” instead of “in the way”. I’m not sure lar, just want to know more exactly the above sentence’s meaning. heeeeeeeeeeee

  2. ^ Definitely cannot use “disturbing”.

    So ..

    (a) Since this baggage is annoying, bring it over there.

    (b) Since this baggage is in the way, bring it over there.

    IMO, I like (b) better as it sound more naturally. Can’t really convince myself to say that the baggage is annoying as if the baggage is something that’s alive -__-“

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